Java Web Services
What Are Java Web Services?
Java Web Services (JWS) are a collection of Java technology tools that allow developers to create and consume web services. The JAX-RS framework is used in the Java SE 5 platform, and it is one of the key components that help Java Web Services work as a distributed system.
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Java Web Services
- JAX-RS is a Java API that simplifies the development of web services. It uses annotations, which are part of the JDK, to simplify the creation and deployment of web service endpoints. The purpose of JAX-RS is to make the development of REST-based web services more intuitive. By providing a number of interfaces, utility classes, and annotations, JAX-RS facilitates the development of lightweight and easy-to-maintain web services.
- JAX-RS provides annotated methods for different media types. This makes JAX-RS web services portable across different Java EE API applications. Each method has an annotation that defines its HTTP request type and URI template, based on the media type. For example, the GET operation has an @HEAD and @Path annotation. As a result, a raw HTTP request containing an annotated method transforms into a Java script API.
- Using annotations, JAX-RS also enables the binding of HTML form parameters. For example, an HTML form may have a parameter with a name attribute that is bound with a @FormParam annotation. However, a JAX-RS-enabled application must ensure that the name attribute on the HTML form matches the value of the corresponding @FormParam annotation.
- JAX-RS also provides a set of built-in entity providers. These include String, InputStream, and File. A resource method to support serialization and deserialization of Java types can add a client-side entity provider. Entity providers can convert any contained entities into Java objects. They can also statically declare the media types they support.
- In addition, it provides a suite of extension points to customize request/response processing. These extensions include container-side filters, asynchronous processing, and bundled exception mapping providers. It also allows the customization of response headers and bodies.
- JAX-RS also introduces a new set of extension points to customize the request and response processing. For example, the FeatureContext parameter allows users to bind interceptors to method definitions. Additionally, it’s possible to implement asynchronous processing on request by suspending the original request thread and asynchronously initiating the processing on a separate thread. Asynchronous processing is also available for a method that can throw an exception.
- Annotations are strings in a raw HTTP request. This allows the JAX-RS runtime to automatically discover the annotations and determine their scope. When invoking a method, the JAX-RS runtime compares the method designator and the corresponding annotations. If the method has a checked exception, the JAX-RS runtime calls the bundled exception mapping provider.
- On the other hand, the JAX-RS runtime will ignore any filter that has the @NameBinding or @PreMatch annotations. Also, the qs value of an @Produces annotation is only comparable to other qs values of the same annotation instance.
- JAX-RS includes pre-matching and post-matching ContainerRequestFilters. Pre-matching ContainerRequestFilters operate on the request and modify the response. A user can abort the request by calling the ContainerRequestContext.abortWith() method.
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Java Web Services
- SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is an XML-based protocol that helps web applications to communicate with other web applications and services. The SOAP protocol uses a variety of protocols, including HTTP, SMTP, and TCP, which both send and receive messages. It can also combine with the HTTP post-response exchanges.
- The SOAP protocol is lightweight in terms of the number of bytes that are necessary to send a message. This makes it an excellent choice for use with lightweight data interchange languages. A message, typically encoded as a simple XML document, may include embedded binary objects for improved performance. However, to receive a SOAP response, the receiver needs to support the newly defined binding.
- While the protocol is lightweight, it still requires a bit of knowledge to understand the features it can offer. Specifically, it allows client application to request a web service, and receive a response that is independent of the platform or its operating system.
- While there are many standards and technologies out there, there is one that stands out. SOAP ( Simple Object Access Protocol) is a standardized, open protocol that supports a wide range of communication. Among its many benefits, SOAP has opened the door for interoperability and communication between heterogeneous software stacks. Because it works over HTTP, it can be easily incorporated into an existing infrastructure.
- In addition to its simplicity, the SOAP protocol has helped to make a great many web applications more robust and effective. This is because it allows applications to take advantage of standardized information exchanges and provides a framework for easy internationalization. Since it is platform-agnostic, the protocol can work with any programming language. As a result, the protocol has become one of the most common web standards.
- The first part of the SOAP request is the envelope, a reusable encapsulation of all the message’s contents. It can include the WSDL, a list of methods the service provides, and the data types and names of the parameters sent to the service.
- The second part of the SOAP request is the body, or actual data. The element tag and all the required elements define a complex type. Similarly, a logger is a good example of a useful, but also a misleadingly obvious, function.
- The SOAP protocol has not only opened the doors for interoperability and information exchange, but it has also paved the way for a multitude of other technologies. From the XML information set to the REST API, there are now a multitude of ways for an application to interact with other applications. These technologies, along with their protocols, helped to make the internet a more open and accessible place.
Java Web Services
- The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is an XML-based interface definition language used to describe networked XML-based services. It is a standard specification for describing web services in a format that is compatible with other technologies. While WSDL is an XML-based language, it provides full support for most protocols. This means it supports many different languages. For instance, you can create a web service that supports both WSDL and REST.
- You can use the WSDL to generate fully annotated Java code. To do so, you need to generate a WSDL document. This is usually the most difficult part of generating a web service because you need to make sure that your document has the correct name and includes all the necessary components.
- In addition to the WSDL file, you also need to specify a URL address for your web service. Typically, you can do this using a desktop program that can parse a WSDL file. However, this is a fairly complex process depending on your service’s complexity. There are tools that can help, such as wsdl2java. If you have a Java client application, it should understand the WSDL file and interact with the service.
- WSDL is more complicated than SOAP. A WSDL document contains information about the protocol, data format, input and output, and other details of the service. Similarly, a SOAP document contains information about the encoding style, transport, and payload representation.
- When you create a WSDL, you can choose between two approaches: a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach. With the top-down approach, you generate a WSDL document from a Java class. However, this can be a very slow process, especially if you’re dealing with a large project. Using a bottom-up approach is more efficient because you can write a Java class before generating a WSDL.
- A WSDL file is a combination of XML and SOAP schemas. Typically, the WSDL divides into four layers. The logical tree is the first layer, which consists of a header and the WSDL element. Besides the WSDL element, the WSDL contains the encoding style, the URL address, and the names and addresses of the various service elements.
- There are three types of elements that you can use in your WSDL: the WSDL element, the Message element, and the portType element. Each of these elements describes a particular function, defined by an abstract operation. Also, the Message element explains the output operations.
- While the Message element is the simplest of all, the WSDL element explains the most complicated. Hence, it’s the most important element. In the WSDL element, you can select an abstract WSDL document to import, as well as an abstract WSDL to define a specific type of message.
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